Monday, December 9, 2013

Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in Tamilnadu , India.

Outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in Tamilnadu , India.

The current outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) among cattle  has significantly hit milk production in Tamil Nadu.  Foot – and Mouth disease is a viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids. The virus causes a high fever for two or three days, followed byblisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus.

The FMD outbreak in world ( Last 6 months)
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24/09/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps
A
Cattle
18/09/2013
Mongolia
Ikh burkhant
A
Cattle
05/09/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Laxi
A
Cattle
19/08/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Naqu
A
Cattle
10/08/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Qiaze
A
Cattle
05/08/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Quma township
A
Cattle
05/08/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Randui village
O
Cattle, Sheep / goats
22/07/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Duobuzha
O
Cattle
06/07/2013
Mongolia
Khar nuur
Pending
Cattle
05/07/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Zhuxi
A
Cattle, Swine
04/07/2013
Mongolia
Sar Bastay
Pending
Cattle, Goats, Sheep





09/06/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Heping village
A
Cattle, Sheep, Swine
08/06/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Longzhong
O
Cattle
30/05/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Qudengyangge village
A
Cattle
27/05/2013
Chinese Taipei
Wuri District
O
Swine
24/05/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Yongjiu village
A
Cattle
20/05/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Zhonglou district
O
Swine
17/05/2013
Chinese Taipei
Baozhong Township
O
Swine
16/05/2013
Chinese Taipei
Jinhu Township
O
Swine
15/05/2013
China (People's Rep. of)
Xiaoquzi village
A
Cattle









Virus:
FMD is caused by a non-enveloped Aphtovirus of the family Picornaviridae, existing in seven distinct serotypes of FMD virus, namely, O, A, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and Asia 1, most of them with many more subtypes. Infection or vaccination with one serotype, or in some cases even a different sub-type of the same serotype, does not confer immunity against another. The genomic nature of FMD virus is RNA.
Transmission : The virus is spread easily by animated and non-animated vectors, notably the incubating or clinically affected animal or its products, but may also spread airborne over substantial distances.
FMD, characterised by a vesicular condition of the feet, buccal mucosa and, in females, the mammary glands, cannot be differentiated clinically from other vesicular diseases.

Pic: 1 : FMD Virus


Pathogenesis
Transmission of FMD is generally by contact between susceptible and infected animals. Infected animals have a large amount of aerosolized virus in their exhaled air, which can infect other animals via the respiratory or oral routes. All excretions and secretions from the infected animal contain virus, and virus may be present in milk and semen for up to 4 days before clinical signs appear. Aerosolized FMD virus can spread a considerable distance as a plume, depending on weather conditions, particularly when the relative humidity is >60% and when the topography of the surface over which it is dispersing does not cause turbulence. FMD has been transmitted to calves via infected milk, and milk tankers carrying infected milk have been implicated in the spread of disease between farms. Fodder can become contaminated after contact with infected animals and iatrogenic spread of FMD has been reported.The horses, dogs, and cats are not affected by FMD, they can act as mechanical vectors, as can humans.

The primary site of infection and replication is usually the mucosa of the pharynx, although the virus can enter through skin abrasions or the GI tract. Virus is distributed through the lymphatic system to sites of replication in the epithelium of the mouth, muzzle, feet, and teats, and also to areas of damaged skin (eg, the knees and hocks of pigs kept on concrete). Vesicles develop at these sites and rupture, usually within 48 hr. The viremia persists for 4−5 days. Antibody production can be detected from 3–4 days after the first clinical signs and is usually sufficient to clear the virus.
The incubation period for FMD is 2–14 days, depending on the infecting dose, susceptibility of the host, and strain of virus—in pigs, it may be as short as 18 hr with some strains of FMD virus. The clinical signs are more severe in cattle and intensively reared pigs than in sheep and goats.
In cattle and pigs, after the incubation period, anorexia and fever of up to 106°F (41°C) may develop. Cattle salivate and stamp their feet as vesicles develop on the tongue, dental pad, gums, lips, and on the coronary band and interdigital cleft of the feet. Vesicles may also appear on the teats and udder, particularly of lactating cows and sows, and on areas of skin subject to pressure and trauma, such as the legs of pigs. Young calves, lambs, kids, and piglets may die before showing any vesicles because of virus-induced damage to the developing cells of the myocardium. Milk yield drops dramatically in milking animals, and all animals show a loss in condition and growth rate that may persist after recovery. Sheep and goats may develop only a few vesicles on the coronary band and in the mouth. Vesicles in the mouth, even when severe, usually heal within 7 days, although recovery of the tongue papillae takes longer. Lesions on the mammary gland and feet frequently develop secondary infections, resulting in mastitis, underrunning of the sole, and chronic lameness. In pigs, the complete horn of the toe may be lost. Cattle and deer may also lose one or both horns of the foot, and deer may shed their antlers.

Prevention and control

The initial measures in the global strategy for dealing with FMD are early detection and warning systems and prevention and rapid response measures and mechanisms in place. This contributes to monitoring the occurrence, prevalence and characterisation of FMD viruses.

Protection of FMD free countries, areas or zones is enhanced with stringent import and cross-border animal movement controls and surveillance.

It is essential for livestock owners and producers to maintain sound biosecurity practices to prevent introduction/spread of the virus. Measures that are recommended at the farm level include:

·        control the introduction of new animals to existing stock;
·        control over access to livestock by people and equipment;
·        maintain sanitation of livestock pens, buildings, vehicles and equipment ;
·        monitor and report illness;
·        appropriate disposal of manure and dead carcasses.


Contingency planning for potential outbreaks will identify the elements included in a response effort to eradicate the disease, such as:

humane destruction of all infected, recovered and FMD-susceptible contact animals;
appropriate disposal of carcasses and all animal products;
surveillance and tracing of potentially infected or exposed livestock;
strict quarantine and controls on movement of livestock, equipment, vehicles, and;
thorough disinfection of premises and all infected material (implements, cars, clothes, etc.)
 In endemic areas, culling may be complemented by vaccination for susceptible livestock. Vaccines used must protect against the particular virus strain prevalent in the area.

Herbal Medicine to Treat FMD

According to TANUVAS , There are two types of herbal medications to treat animals affected with FMD. The first involves the making of a herbal and spicy mixture using ingredients like cumin, garlic, pepper, turmeric, coconut shavings, fenugreek and applying it on the ulcerated and blistered gums of the infected animal, thrice a day, in small quantities to ensure it is chewed properly.

Another herbal medicine involves a concoction of herbal leaves fried in gingelly oil. This mixture is applied to the blistered limbs of infected cattle to keep it free from maggots and speed up the healing process.

References: 

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Australia to Ban Blowing Out Birthday Candles to prevent germs.


Australia to Ban Blowing Out Birthday Candles to prevent germs.
Australian children are to be banned from blowing out candles on birthday cakes under new hygiene regulations that have been slammed by the Australian Medical Association as “bubble-wrapping.”
According to Australia’s Daily Telegraph, the guidelines, set by Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), instruct daycare centers to provide birthday boys and girls with their own individual cupcakes to blow the candles out, to avoid the spread of germs.
 “Children love to blow out their candles while their friends are singing ‘Happy birthday,’” the document states. “To prevent the spread of germs when the child blows out the candles, parents should either provide a separate cupcake, with a candle if they wish, for the birthday child and enough cupcakes for all the other children.”
Daycare staff should also be required to clean toys, doorknobs, floors and cushion covers with germ-killing disinfectant on a daily basis, while youngsters must wash their hands with alcohol-based sanitizer before and after playing in sandpits, says the NHMRC.
But Australian doctors say the guidelines go too far, noting how exposure to bacteria is essential for the development of a healthy immune system.
“If somebody sneezes on a cake, I probably don’t want to eat it either — but if you’re blowing out candles, how many organisms are transferred to a communal cake, for goodness’ sake?” AMA president Steve Hambleton told News Ltd.
“It’s normal and healthy to be exposed to a certain amount of environmental antigens that build up our immune systems. If you live in a plastic bubble you’re going to get infections [later on] that you can’t handle.”
The NHMRC also urged parents to allow their children to stay at home if feeling unwell in order to avoid unnecessarily spreading infections to their school classmates. Schools should ignore doctors’ letters that state a pupil is healthy if teachers suspect otherwise, said the council.

Thanks: World Time


Friday, November 16, 2012

Efficacy of VAM ( Vesicular – Arbuscular Mycorrhizal ) on Red rot Disease in Sugarcane.

Red Rot Disease 
Sugarcane plants





Glomus Mosseae

Glomus fasciculatum

Colletotrichum falcatum

Efficacy of  VAM  ( Vesicular – Arbuscular  Mycorrhizal ) on Red rot Disease in Sugarcane.

( My dissertation work for the award of the degree M.Sc in Microbiology.)

In this work , efficacy of VAM  ( Vesicular – Arbuscular  Mycorrhizal ) on the red rot disease in sugarcane  ( Saccharum officinarum L ) was studied. In the present study , the sugarcane plants were taken as host plants. Glomus mosseae and Glomus fasciculatum were taken as mycorrhizal members .  Colletotrichum falcatum , causative agent of red rot disease , was taken as a pathogen.  The mycorrhizal members were inoculated individually and also in combination with the pathogen. Some of the plant products like phenol ,  ortho dihydric  phenol , peroxidase , catalase , phenol oxidase and ascorbic acid oxidase  which are involved in the defense mechanism were analyzed .
Red rot of sugarcane , a seed – piece transmissible fungal disorder , caused by colletotrichum falcatum , is the most serious disease in India (Agnihotri , 1990 ).  The disease has been responsible for phasing out of numerous commercial sugarcane genotype like CO 213 , CO 299 , CO 312 , CO 313 etc. ( S.pandey and V.P. Agnihotri , 1996 ) .
In the present analysis , it was observed Glomus fasciculatum  induced more phenol production when the sugarcane was infected by Collectotrichum falcatum. The same Glomus fasciculatum was responsible for increased production of ortho – dihydric phenol in sugarcane following the infection of collectotrichum falcatum. It has been observed that certain common phenolic compounds ( toxic to pathogens ) are produced and accumulate at faster rate after infection. Accumulation of phenols and phytoalexins in VAM plants has been reported ( Krishna and Bagyaraj , 1984; Morandi et al 1984 ) which have been found in tissues of variety of plants during pathogenesis  (Vidhya sekaran 1988).
In the present analysis , increased level of ascorbic acid oxidase activity was observed in Glomus mosseae treatment than the other treatments. Both catalase and peroxidase activities were observed in higher level in the Glomus fasciculatuom treated sugarcane platns. Similarly the phenol oxidase activity was also very high in the treatment of Glomus fasciculatum inoculated after the inoculation of colletotrichum falcatum.
The VAM fungi are well known to bring about physiological changes in plants via increasing various enzymatic activities ( Gianinazz et al 1991 ).
The increased peroxidase activity by VAM fungi may be due to VAM inoculation also resulted in increased activity of phenol oxidase enzyme. This increased phenol oxidase activity might be responsible for increased phenolic contents in the plants.   Peroxidase and phenol oxidase are important enzyme of the defence mechanism of plants against pathogens. Both these enzymes are involves in the oxidation of phenolic components into quinines , which are toxic to the pathogen ( Nishimathur , 1995 ).
The present investigation once again proved that in a way VAM is involved in the resistance mechanism of plants. Both Glomus mosseae and  Glomus fasciculatum  are involved in the enhancement of defence mechanism against red rot disease. But Glomus fasciculatum induces somewhat better response over Glomus mosseae. 

Note: Pictures are taken from internet.